At Malaysia`s request, the original proceeding reviewed the steps taken by the United States to comply with the recommendations and judgments of the dispute resolution body. The panel`s report was appealed in Malaysia. The appeal body upheld the panel`s findings that the U.S. measure was applied in a manner consistent with the requirements of Article 20 of the 1994 GATT. The TRIPS agreement is the only international agreement that details the application of intellectual property rights, including rules on obtaining evidence, interim measures, injunctions, damages and other sanctions. It states that courts must, under certain conditions, have the right to order the disposal or destruction of property that violates intellectual property rights. Intentional infringement or commercial-scale copyright piracy must be punishable. Governments must also ensure that IP rights holders are provided with assistance from customs authorities to prevent the importation of counterfeit and illegally manufactured goods. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization responsible for regulating international trade between nations. The WTO was officially opened on 1 January 1995, as part of the 123-nation Marrakesh Agreement signed on 15 April 1994, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which began in 1948.
It is the largest international economic organization in the world.   The final phase of accession includes bilateral negotiations between the candidate country and other members of the Working Group on Concessions and Commitments on the Level of Tariffs and Market Access to Goods and Services. The new member`s obligations will apply equally to all WTO members, even if they are negotiated bilaterally, in accordance with the usual rules of non-discrimination.  For example, following WTO membership, Armenia proposed a 15% tariff on access to its market for products. With collective agreements that are ad valorem, there are no specific or compound rates. In addition, there are no tariff quotas for both industrial and agricultural products.  Armenia`s economic and trade performance growth has been seen since its first review in 2010, particularly after the 2008 global financial crisis, with an average annual GDP growth rate of 4%, despite some fluctuations. The Armenian economy has been characterized by low inflation, lower poverty and substantial progress in strengthening macroeconomic stability, where trade in goods and services, which accounts for 87% of GDP, has played an increasing role.  Non-tariff barriers include product standards, safety rules and food and animal hygiene controls. Some of them will be candidates with or without an agreement, but companies that trade with Europe fear that no agreement, in particular, will cause long delays. The agricultural agreement came into force with the creation of the WTO in early 1995. The AoA has three central concepts, or «pillars»: domestic support, market access and export subsidies.
4. What if the other country has not signed? In this regard, the situation is not clear and is the subject of debate. Some environmental agreements say that countries that have signed the agreement should also apply it to goods and services from countries that do not. Whether this would be contrary to WTO agreements remains unresolved, as no such dispute has yet been initiated in the WTO. A proposal to clarify the situation would be to recast the rules to clarify that, in certain circumstances, countries can invoke an environmental agreement if they take action on trade in a country that has not signed. Critics say this would allow some countries to impose their environmental standards on others.